Here are some of the resources I found on making game engines such as architecture, math, graphics, and a list of some of the more popular/relevant existing game engines on wikipedia.
Your first, second, third and nth Game Engine - Youtube. Lecture about what a Game engine is and what it’s not.
Wiki link - This is a starting point with a ton of resources.
Physically Based Rendering: From Theory To Implementation - Free online ebook. Building your own physically based render engine.
GPU Performance - An article explaining what a GPU does and how and why it does it.
Ray Tracing - An introduction to Ray Tracing
Books on building a Ray Tracing architecture in C++ - A good quick way to understand Ray Tracing through practice. (I falsely said this was for C but is actually in C++)
These are mostly book recommendations on graphics. I will find some other resources about logic, physics and others and update the OP. If you have any other resources or other inputs, feel free to post below and I’ll gladly add them.